m88 instead of having to choose between three different possibilities, each with only a 33.3% chance of taking place, bettors need only choose between two possibilities, each with a 50% chance of taking place. This is done through the a handicap. This bet proved to be so popular among Asian bettors that Western bookmakers decided to offer such bets as well, leading to the establishment of many an Asian bookie that offered their bettors such an option.
Asian handicap odds also aim to make the two choices available to bettors have as equal a chance of taking place as possible. Once you have done so, it becomes a relatively simple matter of using statistics to determine whether the team is likely to win given the handicap that has been provided or is likely to lose even given that handicap.
Traditional football betting odds are fairly straightforward. The Asian handicap bet, as its name suggests, originated in Asia, among the bookmakers of the East. Asian handicap odds betting eliminates the need to calculate the potential profit or loss based on the odds, and instead focuses the bettor’s attention more on the actual skills of the teams and players.
The term Asian bookie is in fact derived from a particular type of bet, known as the Asian handicap bet, which was a relatively recent development in the field of soccer betting. This is the sort of betting that most bettors are used to when it comes to football betting odds.. There is no draw option with an Asian bookie, and if a game ends in a draw, then the Asian bookie will return you the entirety of your bet.
While fixed odds betting may seem simpler and more straightforward than betting on Asian handicap odds, the truth is that Asian handicap odds offer bettors an easier bet. The Asian bookie allows bettors only two different options on which they can bet – one team wins or the other team wins. They involve three possible outcomes for each match – one team wins, the other team wins, or both teams draw. Most of the time, one team will be obviously weaker than the other team. Finally, betting with Asian handicap odds is simply more intriguing and exciting than betting with fixed odds, since the addition of the handicap makes it much more interesting than simply determining which team is the stronger team and betting on that team, subject to calculations on the odds given for a win by that team. These three outcomes are then each available as a particular bet, and if you bet on the outcome that eventually does happen, then you win. By giving the weaker team a handicap in terms of a goal advantage, the bookmaker is able to balance out the chances of either team being victorious.
Why Bet With An Asian Bookie
Asian handicap odds, however, take a slightly different approach to football betting odds. To the discerning bettor, the chances that they place a successful bet are therefore higher with Asian handicap odds.
Also, the provision of a handicap to the weaker immediately allows you to identify which team is the weaker team. The likelihood that the stronger team will win is therefore much higher
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m88 those who are office goers can easily take the pleasure of games as they can see it online. Today, more and more people have started using internet and they are getting latest information from it.
Through the gaming websites, you can not only see your favorite sport but also at the same time you can hear live commenting from the stadium. You can also get the pleasure of past matches as these websites record previous matches.
Generally, a gaming website is quite different from other website. You can relive the anxiety of your game by watching the videos of game changing every moment. This game has huge fan following. there are various sporting websites through you can get latest sport news updates and you can give some refreshment to your life. A game website connects sport lovers to their favorite players and games. These websites are just like a silent reporter which describes games by using words and pictures. While reading live reports on favorite game on website, you will feel that you are watching the game live on stadium. In gaming website you can get the pleasure of live match and can see every sporting event in any part of the world. For example, cricket is a very popular game. Basically, watching live game on television is quite thrilling but getting live commenting along with some important clippings is much more thrilling.
Today, internet is a very important source. Sporting events take place almost everyday as because there are many sports. They are always eager to know how their favorite players are performing on the ground. The author has a master degree in mass communication and sports journalism.For More Information Please Visit, live sports updates and latest sports updates.. It is one of the fastest medium through which you can get information in different fields like education, business, travel, game etc. These websites provide live commenting to the fans. It has been observed that working people take leave from their office and students bunk their school for watching game. Getting live sports updates from a website is like viewing match in the stadium. Another good thing about this website is that you can see the match according to your convenience and even you can start it from the very beginning. They don’t need to leave their work and they can get the update instantly. You can see that viewers are cheering in the stadium and you can go a long way through expert’s comments. Every sport has its own fan following and they always want to get live sports updates.
About The Author
Moreover, one can read the comments of experts and can watch live sports updates. You can share the important moments of game with others and can give your comments.
Sandeep Srivastava is a renowned sports news specialist who has worked with many big widely used news portals
m88 factors that could cause or contribute to differences include, but are not limited to, the risk that the Nevada Gaming Control Board may not grant final approval for the wireless version of Rapid Bet Live in the time frame expected, or at all, the risk that demand for the wired and wireless versions of Rapid Bet Live may not reach anticipated levels, the status of rights licensed from content providers, risks related to the Company’s ability to enforce and develop its intellectual property rights, including rights licensed from third parties, the risk that patents may exist of which the Company is not aware, or that existing patents may provide benefits to third parties beyond those anticipated by the Company, the Company’s ability to meet its capital requirements, relationships with casino operators, the overall industry environment, customer acceptance of the Company’s new products, further approvals of regulatory authorities, adverse court rulings, production and/or quality control problems, the denial, suspension or revocation of privileged operating licenses by governmental authorities, competitive pressures and general economic conditions as well as the Company’s debt service obligations. 8, 2006–Progressive Gaming International Corporation (NASDAQ: PGIC) (the “Company”) a leading provider of diversified products and services used in the gaming industry worldwide announced today that the Nevada Gaming Control Board’s Technology Division has approved the first installation of the “wireless” version of Rapid Bet Live for a live field trial at the Palms Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. Executive Vice-President of Sales and Marketing Bob Parente stated that “based upon initial customer reactions in both Nevada and worldwide in those jurisdictions where sports wagering is legal, we believe the ‘wireless’ version of Rapid Bet Live will have great appeal due to its considerable ease of implementation.”
LAS VEGAS–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Sept. There is a Progressive Gaming International product in virtually every casino in the world. We believe casino operators’ sports books will benefit from implementing both the ‘wired’ and ‘wireless’ versions of Rapid Bet Live by creating an exciting new sports book experience which will lead to incremental revenue growth opportunities.”
Safe Harbor Statements under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: This release contains certain forward-looking statements, including statements regarding the approval of the wireless version of Rapid Bet Live in Nevada, the expected demand for the wireless version of Rapid Bet Live, the revenue growth opportunities provided by the wireless version of Rapid Bet Live and the ease of implementation of the wireless version of Rapid Bet Live. The Company cautions readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. The Company received regulatory approval to distribute the “wired” version earlier this year. For further information, visit www.progressivegaming.net
Chief Executive Officer Russ McMeekin stated “this is a major milestone for our Company’s wireless technology initiatives and sports betting products.
Rapid Bet Live allows live wagering throughout the entire course of a sporting event. The Company does not undertake, and specifically disclaims any obligation, to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new circumstances or anticipated or unanticipated events or circumstances as they occur.. The “wireless” version will give patrons the flexibility of placing wagers on a mobile device from specific networked areas in the casino as well as playing from fixed terminals within the sports book.
About Progressive Gaming International
Progressive Gaming International is a leading supplier of Integrated Casino Management Systems Software and Games for the gaming industry worldwide. For a discussion of these and other factors which may cause actual events or results to differ from those projected, please refer to the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, as well as other subsequent filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Such statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, and actual circumstances, events or results may differ materially from those projected in such forward-looking statements. Wagers will only be placed and accepted over the sports book’s intranet–a local area network which employs a secured 802.11x method of communication.
Progressive Gaming International Corporation
Sue Christensen, 702-263-2800
The Company is unique in the industry in offering management, progressive systems and games as a modular yet integrated solution. The Company develops and distributes an expanding array of slot and table games, sports betting products plus management and progressive jackpot software systems. The wireless version will not allow patrons to access or place wagers on the Internet
m88 that’s precisely why everybody is invited to attend, so if you haven’t registered for the event, you can do so now to guarantee your entry to one of the most anticipated iGaming socials in the calendar.
As always, CalvinAyre.com will be on hand to cover all the fun and festivities that has been a staple at events like this. Remember, doors to the event will open at 7 pm so get your attires ready, bring out those business cards, and prepare for a night of pure unadulterated fun courtesy of the fine folks over at Sports Betting Community Asia and Asia Gambling Brief.
February 19, 2014
Dubbed “Winter Warmer” as a reference to the reset drop in temperatures in the Philippines, the new Asia iGaming Social will be held at the posh and luxurious 71 Gramercy on Friday, February 28 in Makati City.
Just in time for the impending summer heat in the Philippines, Sports Betting Community Asia and Asia Gambling Brief are rolling out its next Asia iGaming Social in Manila.
Last September saw the first iGaming Social held in the Philippines that was hosted by Sports Betting Community Asia and Asia Gambling Brief and judging by the success of that event, expect Winter Warmer to be just as jam-packed with some of the industry’s biggest names.
And if past events are indication, Winter Warmer should be a must-attend event for anybody with any stake in the growing sports betting industry in the region.
Ezugi, EveryMatrix, First Cagayan and Footballbet.com / Betmex.net have all sponsored the event, and you won’t find a more impressive list of established companies to add more dazzle to what is shaping up to be a “circled-on-the-calendar” event.
The exclusive restaurant and lounge is situated atop the country’s tallest building, offering a breathtaking view of the Metro Manila skyline that will serve as the perfect background for industry experts to put their networking hats on and rub elbows with their colleagues and contemporaries.
If the bar was set about as high as it could get then, there’s no reason why Winter Warmer can’t exceed the turnout from Manila iGaming Social. Manila iGaming Social drew over 75 iGaming companies from all over the world, each of whom had many of their representatives in attendance during the event.
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This Sunday’s (Feb 7 at roughly 3:25 pm Vegas time) Super Bowl game relating to the Indianapolis Colts and the New Orleans Saints will spur a routinely massive visitation draw for Vegas. From then onwards, the rules have been subject of subsequent updates. Beads may be threaded into work and also the cord being a rate counter. These tools include scores (including box scores), statistics, injuries, news feeds, standings, rankings and transactions
Of the 4-5 oddsmakers, generally the 2 most respected opinions are weighed more heavily by the Odds Director before he decides on the final line. Mike Seba is a Senior Oddsmaker at LVSC and has been making lines for the last six years. Also, adjustments are made after reading each team’s local newspapers to get a sense of what the coaches & players are thinking going into the game. Reasons for such adjustments include:
Why the Line Changes
The last step in the line-making process for each oddsmaker is taking one final look to determine whether or not the line “feels right.” This is where common sense and past experience with how games are bet enters into the picture. If an oddsmaker comes up with a preliminary line of USC -7, then an adjustment up to -7.5 or -8 would be made in response to the public’s expected USC bias. Seba explained that it all starts with each oddsmaker creating a line on each game based upon their own personal approach. Stated another way, they want to create a line that half the people find appealing to bet one way while the other half find it appealing to bet the other way (known as ‘dividing the action’). We do this by drawing from past experiences and applying them to current situations. Oddsmakers have to determine if any changes are necessary and send out an “adjusted line.”
“You either have a passion for it or you don’t,” Seba said. In doing so they attempt to make more attractive the team that is getting less action.
What Is the Line Trying to Accomplish?
The opening line is the first line created by the oddsmakers, which is then sent out to sportsbooks. By moving the line, sportsbooks can influence how the public bets on a particular game. The power ratings are adjusted after each game a team plays. For example, the public might have heavy betting interest week after week on a popular college football team such as USC.
Since the oddsmaker’s ultimate goal is equally dividing the betting action, public perception and betting patterns must be taken into account. For example, if the pointspread on a game is 7 and most of the money is coming in on the underdog (taking the +7), sportsbooks will then move the number down to 6 ½ to try and attract money on the favorite. By necessity their approach is very research-oriented and concise, since with millions of dollars at risk there is little margin for error. Of course there is an entire method to the madness on how the opening line is created.
Power ratings are the oddsmaker’s value of each team and are used as a guide to calculate a “preliminary” pointspread on an upcoming game. If we’ve done that, we’ve done our job.”
Once betting begins, sportsbooks can adjust the line at any time. That is not the case at all – their intent is NOT to evenly split the ATS result between the teams; rather, their goal is to attract equal betting action on both sides. Obviously, if the line comes out a week ahead of the event (which is the case in football), there is much that could happen during the week leading up to the event that could affect the line. Each of these oddsmakers bring unique opinions, strengths and weaknesses to the process. “We’re not trying to pick the team that covers the spread, we’re trying to make it a coin flip, a tough decision (for the bettor).
Las Vegas Sports Consultants (LVSC) is the world’s premier oddsmaking company and the most respected authority on making the lines.
How the Opening Line Is Made
Oddsmakers at LVSC are professional sports junkies who love what they do and would probably do it for nothing if you asked them, but they do get paid for it.
Once the opening line is released by LVSC, the individual sportsbooks decide if they want to make any adjustments before offering it to the public.
Individual books having players who consistently bet with certain tendencies (such as an extreme bias toward favorites or toward a certain popular team like USC)
“The #1 thing for us is to make a line for each game that creates good two-way action.
“The main objective is that our clients get equal action on both sides,” Seba said. This usually includes having up-to-date power ratings on each team. People think it’s much more complicated, but it’s not.”
There is a common misconception that point spreads represent the oddsmakers’ prediction of how many points the favorite will win by. Examples of non-game factors that would require an adjustment to a team’s power rating are key player injuries and player trades.
Divided action means the sportsbook is guaranteed a profit on the game because of the fee charged to the bettor (called juice or vig – typically $11 bet to win $10).
Experts working for the individual books having a strong opinion on the game
A round-table discussion among the 4-5 oddsmakers involved in making the line for each sport is then conducted and a consensus line is decided upon by the Odds Director before it is released to the sportsbooks.
The purpose of these adjustments, like all line adjustments, is to more equally divide the betting action.
Once a game’s power rating based pointspread is determined, the oddsmaker will make adjustments to that line after considering each team’s most recent games played and previous games played against that opponent. In our extended interview, Seba explained that there are 4-5 oddsmakers assigned to make lines for each of the major sports (pro & college football and basketball; MLB, NHL, boxing, golf).
Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.
Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.
Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.
In that spirit.
Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. My study suggests that’s not the case.
This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.
None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. None of them work.
In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.
For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60’s and 70’s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.
However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.
Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.
Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.
For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.
First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.
Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.
The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.
Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.
In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.
How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.
Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!
Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.
Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.
Anything less than this and it is going to be a disaster. In the case of team sports, injuries are important. So do yourself a favor and swear off them. It doesn’t matter if it is pretty or not.
. If you are going to do it you need to do it properly and master it, it means you are completely organized and focused. Over time, you will learn what it should be that you should be paying attention to.
Sports betting is an easy way to make a tough living. Thus when you are doing well, you will still be focused and when you aren’t doing so well you won’t be thinking that it’s the end of the world. It could provide great insight as to predicting what will occur.
Because of this point, it is probably better if you steer clear from any matches involving the teams that you like. The weather conditions also make a difference as they do in horse racing. What is the point of drowning yourself in statistics and research for what you could just as easily decided with a flip of the coin? So you need to sift through it all and just take the morsels here and there which are really important and make a difference. Hopefully this kind of thinking will keep you grounded. You shouldn’t favor a team because they are the team your best friend supports. This means that when you place your bets you need to be thinking clearly and concisely. You can’t let the highs and lows affect you too much.
Look for value bets. You don’t want to lose money just because you weren’t on top of your game.
The most important thing is that you need to take emotion out of the equation. You will be better off for doing so in the long run.
Information and doing your homework is important, but you don’t want to full into the trap of information overload. Travel is a factor such as when East Coast sides travel to the West Coast and vice versa. It’s all about accumulating winnings. So if you suffer a bad break along the way, just remember it goes with the territory. You want to know who trained and who didn’t. Business is business and you need to be concentrating on who is going to win regardless of who likes and who doesn’t like which team.
Speaking of the long run, this is what you should be focused on. For instance, if you are pretty certain that a side is going to win and they are getting good odds for this than take this. It is only going to place you in a difficult position and as much as you might think it won’t be, your decision making ability is going to be compromised. Also look into how sides perform the week after doing certain travel. On the flip side, you shouldn’t bet against a team because someone you don’t like roots for that team. Upsets are always going to happen but see when it makes the most sense when to go for that and when not to
We have some ideas that we’re not yet seeing out there, so it’s a very exciting time for us.
Sellke: Like a lot of big incumbents, I am concerned that the casino industry has become complacent, or worse, lazy. Secondly, these game titles aren’t part of any bona fide eSports franchises. That’s death. Solving it will mean things have to change!
Hickey Jr.: Why should eSports be in a casino?
National Video Games Examiner Patrick Hickey Jr. If it’s fun for free, it’s even more so for money.. First off, they call them “VGMs” or video game gambling machines. And competitive eSports for money should be only allowed amongst grown-ups (or pros). For example, companies like GameCo are licensing games for deployment in Atlantic City later this year. It seems to be more of a shoehorn solution where the industry is responding to the opportunity by trying to make eSports fit into what they know. and then committing to solve it. Presumably, these will enable a new level of head-to-head, skill-based competitions, playing true eSports titles. They don’t have the appeal that “real” eSports games have all over the world.
Also, companies like Ourgame are opening large 14,000 square foot, 200 seat arenas in places like Beijing and Las Vegas.
For more information on Evolve Labs, click here.
Adam Sellke: We’re currently seeing skill-based, first-person gambling games coming onto casino floors. Most of these early examples aren’t that innovative and look a little uninspired.
Patrick Hickey Jr.: How would eSports work in a casino?
Esports is a watershed moment for the casino industry, but the industry will have to step out of its comfort zone in order to make it work for them.
Hickey Jr.: What games do you think would work best in a casino?
What if the answer is they shouldn’t be? What should casinos do to still participate in this shift in entertainment?
Sellke: All you gotta do is look at your top MOBAs and other competitive titles. In a recent piece Sellke wrote on Gamasutra, he outlines why the Casinbusinessss must begin to adapt to reach a new sort of clientele and in this chat with Examiner, he takes it a step further, elaborating how eSports can play a role in that adaptation.
Sellke: I am not sure they should be… Perhaps a seat could be assessed various entry “fees”, where a higher entry fee would essentially correspond to tougher competition (similar to what you see in poker rooms). chats with Evolve Labs Founder Adam Sellke, who discusses the possible impact of eSports on casino culture.The founder/ co-founder of several startups (Surtsey, Madoi, Ripshark, Tunebloom, Evolve Labs and more), Sellke has served in individual contributor and management roles at Merck, BBDO, Carlson Companies, UnitedHealth Group and Best Buy. We have some interesting ideas on how to address skill-disparities, but we’re keeping that under wraps for now ;).
Hickey Jr.: What’s wrong with the casino industry and how could eSports help “fix” things?
I personally think they should because casinos should be about grown-up entertainment. Fixing it starts with acknowledging a problem… in my opinion, casino operators need to answer that question with more than “because we want them to be”. I fundamentally disagree that eSports should be considered gambling. What form that entertainment takes is yet to be determined. I haven’t seen how matchmaking would work, though. A shark vs minnow environment could ensue. A potential downside to this might be that without rank verification, fees would be the only way to set or “regulate” skill level matches. That’s definitely the first step, but I’m not necessarily a big proponent of these machines
Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.
Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.
Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time
Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy
? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.
? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.
? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.
? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.
? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.
? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.
? Gambling has proven to be addictive. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.
? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.
? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.
You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.
? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.
? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.
? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.
? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.
? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.
Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.
? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.
? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.
? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.
? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.
? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.
? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. The two go hand in hand. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.
? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.
? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.
? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.
? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.
Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.
? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.
? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.
? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers
These cruises are highly expensive and so not within everyone’s reach.
Due to it’s all round entertainment in terms of gaming and voyage, the charisma of casino cruises is at a surge these days. These cruises are an absolute and perfect vacation in them. There are also chances of disputes and quarrels. However if you had had enough of gambling, you can go to other wing of the ship and relish different amusement programs there.
Day cruises are a matter of four to five hours out of which one hour is spent in floating down to international waters.
Casino cruises combine the zeal for gambling with the wonderful desire to drift on huge water bodies and experience perfect tranquility, caressing nature from everywhere. In order to know the repute of a company, you can consult your friends, family and also check up with the Better Business Bureau.
In comparison to daytime cruises are overnight ones that usually happen on large cruise lines. Apart from immense boozing and gambling, the greatest shortcoming of these overnight cruises is their expense. Since the day casino cruises offer limited time to gamble, it saves the players from spending lot of money and running into debts. Usually the day trips are functional throughout the week while some companies offer trips that run only on weekends. Casino cruises are a timeless source of entertainment and means to a perfect vacation. But on the same hand it runs the risk of many gamblers going bankrupt. Eminent companies not just offer delightful gambling but also several other amenities with it. These cruise liners are hubs of entertainment, one of its best form being ‘casino’. Prior to opting for a casino cruise, it is always better to consider the company that is running the casino. These companies take good care of everything, your entertainment, well-being and comfort. For instance most casino cruise companies offer day trips while several others present overnight trips. As the time ends, all players have to make a move, be it in an unsolicited mood. The adults who board these pricey cruise liners especially to gamble should prefer to leave their children at home and celebrate an ideal escape. are swarming with gamblers who come from nearby states to enjoy. These casinos offer ample of time to gamble and enjoy. Due to this the casinos of some well-known places such as Florida, Louisiana, Texas, New York etc. In these states, the casinos are placed on boats that can sail into international waters to operate.
Besides these several other companies promise incredible enjoyment in terms of trips that last for a complete weekend. But since gambling often entails serious repercussions, many states do permit neither gambling nor casinos. No doubt at present it is the hottest pick in the gambling world.
Depending upon the needs and desires of gaming aficionados, there are different casino cruises available these days. Besides gambling, day cruises are ideal for short and unperturbed evenings.
It was so unusual at the time . . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen.
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
AIDS now had a face.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet .
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
Mr. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
From a front-line perspective
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. 1952-1953).
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Gateway to the West
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
This makes little sense.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
Dr. . . Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
Update note:Dr. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
But, it doesn’t end there.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
The Road to Zero
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Louis.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
Less Than Zero
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca.
Any such business affecting the inter-state business and commerce, and failing to abide by t state rules for running a business will also come under the jurisdiction of gambling laws. Players who play games with smart analysis will surely succeed with less time.
If a player has an intention to play in an online casino, compulsorily he should have a bank roll.
The Worlds first online casino: Internet Casinos Inc (ICI) started its operation in the year 1995. The first thing you understand in casino gambling is Bets valuation. Players should evaluate the game and inquire about the probability of winning it.
For tips on how to play casino games, visit our website. Statutes also state that it is inappropriate to use a gambling ship for the transfer of goods or people from one place to another. For example: Which is the better option among these two? Playing a slot machine which has million dollar pay out or playing a blackjack which has less price money? Definitely, if they both have same price we will prefer a slot machine. It is known that online gambling sites cannot accept any kind of encrypted credit card data that can be used for making payments. According to a recent survey conducted there are around 14.5 million gamblers around the globe.
As per the law, major financial institutions are required to design and enforce policies and procedures which will restrict the process of illegal funding to the online gambling operators. This bank roll allows him to place bets on the games being played. It is really difficult to predict how online gambling malfunctioning can come under the proper control of the law and order and that’s why one needs to know the basics of casino gambling in order to be on the right track.
The emergence of these technologies was accompanied by a sense of uncertainty at the time of using them, especially for private communications. This online casino started its services with 18 games from 18th august 1995. Gambling is not a simple task, it needs patience and at the same time innovative moves. Gambling laws are aimed to address this issue and provide assurance about the sense of security and privacy among the public. On the other hand, although gambling has been disciplined by state laws, some lobbies in the government exist in favor of gambling. All these gambling casinos generate a turnover of $3 billion for year. Gambling is not illegal; players can go to online casinos and play these games. Today there are around 1400 websites offering varieties of gambling games. If you people wish to make more money online, then here are some of the common techniques. Learn how to play poker and casino table games today.
They should select games offering great bonus points. Second important point a gambler should have is patience
In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks
While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.
Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping
In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.
You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing
You must first connect. A signal to change, to slow down, to breathe more deeply and to go within.Tags: spirituality, happiness, happy, success, personal developmentWhy Is It Important For A Doctor To Opt For Spiritual Retreat In Bali? By: Ashis Kumar – Here in this article you will find some points that describe why doctors opt for spiritual retreat in Bali.Tags: retreat bali, bali retreat, retreat, meditation, yogaGet Over Yourself, Connecting Is Key To Communicate Your Dream, So Get Over Yourself! By: Sandy Z – Everyone communicates but few connect. Deutsch – It’s a universal law that says, what you sow, so shall you reap. In other words, what goes around, comes around. Do you have a dream or vision that you want to communicate to the world. Deutsch – From the time we are born, we are always on our way to becoming something. Finally, if you were born in the range of April 14th thru April 19th, you will be luckier during the Moon’s fourth quarter.
The celestial number of Aries is (7), and Mars, the ruling planet of Aries has a numerical value of (6). Uma regio muito privilegiada quanto paisagem e a pureza do ar.Tags: espiritualidade, sucesso e prosperidadeKaal Sarp Dosh Yog And Its Effects By: Vijay Bharti – Kaal Sarp Dosh is one of terrific condition in ones kundli so it require proper remedy and astrological consultation by Vedic Astrologers
Tags: kaal sarp yog puja, kaal sarp dosh puja, kaal sarp doshWhat Goes Around, Comes Around By: Connie H. Connecting with people is an art. As an Aries, you probably know your basic Horoscope, but did you know that there are particular days and hours of the Month which are especially lucky for you? Here are some times when you will be especially lucky.
===> Lucky Moon Days
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Many sources hold that you are luckier during the day when your ruling planet is governing. If it falls in the range of March 29th thru April 5th, you will be luckier during the days of the second quarter of the Moon. Connection comes from the heart. You can determine this hour by starting at sunrise, and then counting forward to your lucky hours. If you are going to gamble on the lottery during the month; you should buy your ticket on one of the following days: the 4th, 13th, 22nd, or 31st. In addition, you should look for the number (4) to appear in your winning numbers. For people born under Aries, the following calculations hold.
Friday: You are luckier during the 6th, 13th, and 20th hours after sunrise.
Lessons In Surrender – Becoming More Spiritual By: Heidi Alexandra Pollard – It began with a feeling, then a sign, a nudge and then a book. The teacher teaches us how to survive on this earth by fighting with all the barriers of life. Don’t play the victim when you are subjected to the same type of treatment you have meted out to others.Tags: universal law, victims, sow, reap, abusive behaviorA Teacher Helps Us To Nourish Our Career And Future By: savemypc – A teacher has a lot of importance in our life from the time we are born.
People born in the date range of March 21st through April 19th have the Astrology sun sign of Ares the Ram. Learn to connect and the world is yours.Tags: Get over yourself, getting over yourself, get over myselfLuz Da Serra – Encontre O Seu Caminho De Luz By: Jill Cohen – O nome Luz da Serra nasceu de uma imensa admirao que os seus fundadores, Bruno J.Gimenes e Patrcia Cndido, sempre tiverem ao ver o pr do sol na serr gacha. When we look back, we can measure our progress by the way our thoughts and actions have defined our life.Tags: becoming, spiritual, near-death, God, mortality. Visit him on the web today at http://www.numerology4you.com
Sunday: You are luckier during the 7th, 14th, and 21st hours after sunrise.
Tuesday: You are luckier during the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 22nd hour after sunrise.
Saturday: You are luckier during the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 24th hour after sunrise.
Thursday: You are luckier during the 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd hours after sunrise.
If you were birthday falls in the range of March 21st thru March 28th, you will be luckier during the days of the New Moon. Most people are so busy thinking that they don’t allow their minds to be quiet enough to receive the answers.Tags: outside the box, meditation, thinking, consciousness, astralWe’re On The Way To Becoming By: Connie H. Tags: experienced teacher in BrisbaneThe Most Unexpected Website I Came Across Was That Of The Grace Church! By: onlinejazz – Internet always throws up some surprise or the other for us anyways! The more we explore, the more we come across things! And most interestingly, we end up finding out websites that we never thought that existed.Tags: Christ Church videos, video sermons online, video sermonThinking Outside The Box By: Connie H. Therefore, any day of the month who’s digits reduce to (4) is a lucky day for people born under Aries. This number varies by the day of the week. It is difficult to survive without a teacher. If you are born under Aries, and are playing a game of chance with a partner, you will be luckiest when that partner is born under one of the following signs: Aquarius, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, or Libra.
Monday: You are luckier during the 4th, 11, and 18th hours after sunrise.
Wednesday: You are luckier during the 5th, 12th, and 19th hour after sunrise.
About the Author:
Keith Abbott is the developer and owner of ‘Numerology 4 You’ where you can order your own Numerology reading, including your complete Lucky Days calendar. Using fadic addition from Numerology gives us the sum of (13) which reduces to (4). If your birthday falls in the range of April 6th thru April 13th, you will be luckier during the days of the Full moon. A teacher educates a student and makes him or her socially capabl … Deutsch – Thinking outside the box actually requires you to suspend the thought process long enough for the answers to come into your mind